"a caterpillar doesn't just grow into a butterfly. a caterpillar must undergo metamorphosis, and a cocoon is where a caterpillar risks it all: enters total chaos, undergoes total rebuilding, and is born to a new way of living. only in taking the risk of entering that inert cocoon can the caterpillar go from dormancy to potency, from ugliness to beauty."

Tuesday, August 05, 2014

a glimpse of japanese culture: chanoyu

"If man has no tea in him, 
he is incapable of understanding truth and beauty."
-- Japanese Proverb


noun \¦chänō¦yü\
"a Japanese ceremony consisting of the serving and taking of tea in accordance with an elaborate ritual"


once upon a japanese tea ceremony in fukui-shi


this afternoon, i took a very short break and attended a summer tea ceremony. we ate mochi and drank green tea, prepared and served according to japanese tradition.

by observation, i learned some key points...

they bow every time they approach to serve or to retrieve items from the guest, the guest acknowledges every time with a bow

they turn the tea bowl 2, 3 times before serving the tea to the guest, the guest does the same before and after drinking -- this has everything to do with aesthetics and not superstition

the guest who gets served first receives his tea in the most valuable bowl. with significance comes great pressure because all eyes are on this guest (trick: know where to sit and avoid the first chair. for this matter, know which is the "first" chair.)

the teapot, the tea whisk, the tea cups, all have their stories. all things related to the tea ceremony, including the chabana (tea flower arrangement) and the wall decor (calligraphic scroll), are meticulously chosen and done. 

the host is usually female. it is a rare occasion when a male is the master of the tea ceremony.

the hosts don't just master the art, skills, grace, and discipline required to perform the various tasks that they do, they also speak with a higher degree of politeness -- definitely more polite compared to the already polite japanese form (there's "casual form" for everyday conversation with friends and equals, there's polite form, and there are also more polite forms.) because the tea ceremony is also about respect, the guests are expected to adhere to this level of politeness and exhibit social finesse.

lastly, i can't serve tea the japanese way. i just have ideas on what the hosts and guests do. even for the role of mere guest, i still have a lot to learn about the tea ceremony. this goes with saying that a whole lot more is expected from me if i were to be a host.



Saturday, May 24, 2014

the fukui, japan version


"We write to taste life twice,
in the moment and in retrospect."
-- Anais Nin

the 11.06.13 photo entry to my album of "firsts" in japan:
a photo of my right knee with my temporary souvenirs from an accidental stunt :D

on 11.07.13, i wrote...

the last time i posted a photo similar to this one was more than 7 years ago, when i got bruises and abrasions after i fell from a stationary ikot jeepney in UP diliman on my way to the old NIP building. :) now, THIS: the fukui, japan version! ;-)

yesterday morning, just before i reached the university, i *earned* these bruises on my right knee and another minor one on my left knee because i crashed my bicycle.

i was going slowly and was further slowing down as i manoeuvred my bicycle to join the lane of bikers waiting to cross the intersection just in front of the university's main gate. i don't know what exactly happened but i lost my balance and, unfortunately, failed to regain it.

there was a loud crash when my bicycle and i fell on the roadside.

i quickly got up and i quickly pulled my bicycle back up, too -- as if nothing happened even though i instantly felt intense pain in some parts of my body and my bike's basket got so obviously distorted due to the impact. part of me wanted to laugh out loud because i personally found my situation so funny on such a fine autumn morning. :) at the same time, i had this thought in 3 languages in my mind: ouch, that hurt; embarrassing, too / aray, ang sakit; nakakahiya / agay, kasakit; kaulaw oi. :D thank goodness, the people here are so polite and able to react with a collective show of nonchalance -- i was saved from further embarrassment. :D i looked around and saw nobody gawking at me. :)

as soon as i reached my parking spot within the university grounds, i fixed my bicycle's basket back into shape and checked my knees before i went to my morning classes. i was relieved to see no wounds but, with all the pain i was feeling, i was sure bruises here and there were starting to form. last night when i got home and saw the bruises, i understood better why i was still feeling intense body pains several hours after the accident. i managed to go about my activities for the day as if nothing happened though. :D

i don't mind having some action adventures but i think i have had enough of accidental stunts. i pray that yesterday's surprise "stunt" will be my first and last here. angsakitsakitkaya!



04.01.14 biking during a fine spring day along sakura-dori | fukui city, japan
the accident never stopped me from riding my bicycle :)

note: i arrived in japan for graduate studies on september 26, 2013. 

Tuesday, May 20, 2014

piled higher and deeper

"The early bird gets the worm,
but the second mouse gets the cheese."
--Author Unknown

x X x
"paranormal x-ray" for dental and facial structure imaging. what in the world is "paranormal x-ray"?!? :)

my "bangag" moment of the day (yeah, i know that it's just lunchtime and the day is far from over): i meant "panoramic x-ray" but i mentioned "paranormal x-ray" ...TWICE! parang pang espiritista x-ray lang??? hahaha. buti isa lang ang kausap ko pero super laugh trip pa rin. ang hirap maka-get over. hehe.

now, there's a worthy addition to this compilation which i made sometime in 2012...

- calcu, letter blue, atbp.

ang mga sumusunod ay totoong nangyari recently, magkakaibang instances naman pero... basta... read on. pumi-PhD na yata ako sa pagiging bangag.

eksena 1: calcu
isang umaga sa R&D cube

ako (habang tinampal-tampal at kinakamot ang braso, may something itchy) to teammate 1: oist, pahingi naman ng calcu (sabay turo sa isang malaking bote ng green cross isopropyl alcohol). 
teammate 1: ha? (magbubukas na ng drawer, kukuha ng calcu kaso natigilan) pakiulit.
ako: pahingi ngang calcu. pahingi n'yan (turo sa alcohol).
teammate 1: anong sabi mo, calcu?

*bwahahaha* *tawanan*

oo nga naman, ang layo ng calcutor sa alcohol. anoveh. tsaka ang calcu, hinihiram lang, hindi hinihingi.

eksena 2: kape
isang umaga ulit sa R&D cube 

ako (kararating lang) to teammate 1: tara, kape. igib. (igib ang term namin sa simpleng pagkuha ng tubig sa pantry.)
teammate 1: tara. igib.

niyaya din namin si teammate 2. ready na sila agad. 

ako: wait lang. (kumuha ng something sa pocket ng bag) game! (sabay kukuha na lang ng mug at tumbler.) 
teammate 1: kala ko ba sabi mo kape. bakit toothpaste ang bibitbitin mo?

so tumingin ako sa something na kakukuha ko lang sa bag -- shucks, toothpaste nga! (tsaka, ang mga sachets ng kape ay naka-store sa drawer ko at hindi sa pocket ng bag.) wow lang!

*bwahahaha* *tawanan* 

eksena 3: after last LSS (lean six sigma) class
sa hallway palabas ng planta 

teammate: kumusta naman kayo sa taas kanina? (ang class ay nasa second floor)
ako: ok lang. activity namin kanina ay related sa motivation and personalities. letter blue ako.
teammate: ano 'yon?
ako: ang letter blue personality, ma-technical, kelangan ng detalye, mabusisi
teammate: letter blue? parang alphabet lang?
ako: (pause) shucks! hindi letter blue. color blue.
teammate: sabi mo letter blue. narinig ko.

enggggkkkk. walang bawian! letter blue kung letter blue!

*bwahahaha* *tawanan*

ano ba, val, pang-ilan mo na 'yan?

eksena 4: password
isang hapon sa R&D cube, break time na dapat 

teammate: break.
ako: tara. kelangan ko din kasi ng password.
teammate: ano? password? para saan?
ako: kelangan ko ng password!! (sabay pakita sa ATM card) 
teammate: ha?

tengneneng! ang gusto ko palang sabihin ay... kelangan kong mag-withdraw. ang labo!!!


*bwahahaha* *tawanan*


eksena 5: orange
team weekend bonding sa shell tabangao 

ako (papunta sa kitchen counter, nadaanan si teammate 3 na nagsasalin ng orange liquid sa transparent na baso): wow, orange! (sa isip ko orange... juice.) ano 'yan, sprite?
teammate 2: huh?
teammate 3: hindi. royal.
teammate 2: kitang orange, tapos, sprite?
ako: ha?
teammate 3: hindi 'to sprite. royal tru orange 'to.

*bwahahaha* *tawanan*

ako: oo nga, no? ba't ko nga ba sinabing sprite?

ohmaigulai. pinagbabayaran ko na yata ang pambabara ko kay sir mel noong minsang tinawag n'yang spaghetti ang macaroni. aba, hindi pwede. hahaha!

eksena 6: listerine
after lunch break 

ako: (may kinuhang maliit na bote sa bag, binitbit sa ladies room. kru kru. binuksan ang bote kaso...) hmmm, ba't kelangan kong i-flip ang listerine cap para mabuksan?

tumingin ako sa bote at nanlaki ang mata. shucks! muntikan na!!! ang hawak-hawak ko ay... bote ng green cross sanitizing gel na sinalinan ko ng rubbing alcohol. disclaimer: di po ako suicidal. nag-autopilot lang.

when i shared this to my teammates, ayun, bonggang tawanan na lang ulit. wag ko daw sarilinin problema ko. haha.

07.06.12 isang matinding note to self: umayos ka.
ang
green cross sanitizing gel na sinalinan ng rubbing alcohol

ay hindi listerine. (--,)

Thursday, February 13, 2014

kiddie art for my nihongo class

"All cartoon characters and fables must be exaggeration, caricatures. 
It is the very nature of fantasy and fable." 
--Walt Disney

on the 16th day of january 2014, our sensei introduced us to some imaginary animals (そうぞうのどうぶつ; souzou no doubutsu) in japanese stories. since mermaids and something similar to the abominable snowman were included in the そうぞうのどうぶつ sheets that she distributed, i decided to write about the manananggal when she asked us students to draw and write about imaginary animals in our respective countries.

this is the work that i shared to my sensei and classmates after about fifteen minutes of thinking, drawing, and writing...

impromptu drawing-and-writing activity output
this photo shows that i can still draw and write like a kid. :) hahahaha.

this is the rough translation of what i wrote:
"this imaginary creature lives in the village. in the morning, it's human.
in the evening, it's body is cut in half.
the upper part of the body has wings. the wings are large and black.
this imaginary creature is called aswang. another name for it is manananggal.
this imaginary creature is bad. the eyes, teeth, and face are very scary.
the aswang likes various types of people. and, (the aswang) eats them."

i wanted to mention blood and exposed veins and internal organs but, until now, i don't know yet the nihongo words for those. i wanted to write more but... see, this is what happens if one's nihongo skills are very limited: stuck with simple statements and simple words and forced to an abrupt ending.

p.s. my drawing shows an aerodynamically-challenged manananggal. ;-)

Friday, September 20, 2013

mission accomplished in iligan city: six waterfalls in one day!


oh yes! it can be done. actually, the target was to go to 7 waterfalls and, if not for circumstances beyond our control, we could have been to 8.


mission impossible and ultimate daytrip experience:
six waterfalls in an eight-hour adventure
 in iligan city


the 8-hour adventure of pinas flashpackers in iligan: 
waterfalls, waterfalls, and more waterfalls
08.23.13 six key stops, multiple public transportation transfers, and LOTS of walking | 
iligan -- "the city of majestic waterfalls"


in sitio kalubihon, brgy. dalipuga: [1] pampam falls. [2] unknown photogenic cascade downstream of pampam falls. [3] another unknown falls further downstream of pampam with deeper and more photogenic all-natural pool (accessible from the top of the falls or sa bakilid; just choose your own thrill).



via sitio dodiongan, brgy. digkilaan: [4] dodiongan falls 



via brgy. buru-un and brgy. ditucalan: [5] tinago falls



in brgy. buru-un: [6] mimbalot falls


missed (not our fault): maria cristina falls due to temporary closure of NPC nature's park/MinGen facilities to the public (a security-related proactive measure), missed (time & energy constraints and confusion over the location): kalubihon falls>

before this, the last time i set out to see some of iligan's more than twenty waterfalls was in december 2009.

kalubihon falls | february 2000

13 years ago, this was kalubihon falls -- we climbed above the cave instead of going inside it to eventually get to the foot of the falls. once we made our way down to the foot, we explored the cave. we went back upways and explored the upstream, too.

[watch out for the complete story; this post will be updated in the coming days.]



related posts:
In Focus: Iligan City, Her Lures, and More
destination: tinago falls




Monday, September 16, 2013

breathtaking tawi-tawi, truly breathtaking tawi-tawi


"It is a nature sanctuary with extensive rain and mangrove forests, rich culture, majestic mountains, primeval caves, coral reefs with some of the world’s rarest marine life, outstanding dive sites,
and pristine white sand beaches."

-- from Tawi-tawi, Close Encounters of a Natural Kind


tawi-tawi: what more can i say?
this is part 8 and the conclusion of a series entitled breathtaking tawi-tawi: our journey to the philippines' southernmost frontier.


picture perfect panglima sugala, tawi-tawi

dear traveler,

tawi-tawi is THE destination you should not miss. the tawi-tawi travel experience is a priceless gift for the senses and this is not an overstatement.

it is true that tawi-tawi is "the backdoor gateway of the philippines to the rest of southeast asia," but this is only a simplified description of the country's southernmost melting pot that has so much in terms of culture, history, natural resources, and paradise spots.


bongao, tawi-tawi
as seen from the sea
on april 22, 2011
a kite eagle flying over brgy. pasiagan | tawi-tawi
on april 23, 2011

i dare share here a few pictures out of the hundreds that i took during our 3-day adventure but know that none of these can ever come close to making you experience the real deal.

bring yourself there, traveler. your tawi-tawi story is waiting to be told. allow your own tawi-tawi journey to unfold.


best regards,
someone who's been there and longing to return


tawi-tawi: glimpses and tidbits in random order

tawi-tawi is an archipelago composed of 107 islands and islets located at the southwestern tip of the philippines. it is an island province with rich marine borders. a significant part of the tawi-tawi population rely on what they can have from the sea and it is logical that they stay close to it, if not on it -- either in houses built on stilts or on board boats.

when in tawi-tawi, expect to see lots of houses and outbuildings on stilts!

a lovely sight of stilthouses 
seen from sanga-sanga bridge
on april 24, 2011
stilts and a tropical hut in sangasiapu island | tawi-tawi
on april 23, 2011
a house on stilts in simunul island | tawi-tawi
on april 22, 2011
stilthouses and footbridges in brgy. tubig indangan, simunul, tawi-tawi
on april 22, 2011


the tawi-tawi provincial capitol, with its prominent dome and white walls, looks like a magnificent mosque.  it sits on a hill in bongao and provides an overlooking view of the town and the sea.


the tawi-tawi provincial capitol
as seen from the roofdeck of hotel juana
on the night of april 22, 2011

kat and i with the official seal of tawi-tawi
at the site of the provincial capitol
on april 23, 2011
(kat owns this picture)

black saturday sunset colors
as seen from the site of the tawi-tawi provincial capitol
on april 23, 2011

the venice of the south and the southernmost municipality of the philippines is sitangkai, a real deal waterworld where the known highway is a marine waterway. sitangkai is also the seaweed capital of the philippines.

 a smiling boatman taking the highway in sitangkai
on april 22, 2011

the island of sibutu is the nearest neighbor of sitangkai within philippine territory. sibutu is the island home of skilled seafarers, expert boat-builders, and master woodcarvers. aside from having white sand coastline with direct access to the celebes sea, sibutu also has the makhdum memorial and the kaban-kaban, a deep natural swimming hole with clear freshwater.

glimpses of sibutu island
on april 22, 2011

a known local mecca and pilgrimage site of filipino muslims is simunul, the recognized cradle of islam in the philippines. in simunul's brgy. tubig indangan, where the first mosque in the philippines was built, there is a commemorative arch to mark the 630th anniversary of the introduction of islam in the philippines.

the commemorative arch in simunul | tawi-tawi
on april 22, 2011

the pier in tubig indangan is not just a picture of open invitation. it is a good spot for watching inspiring sunsets, too.

once upon an awesome sunset
seen from tubig indangan, simunul, tawi-tawi
on april 22, 2011

among the many rewarding joys of island hopping in tawi-tawi is seeing the horizon disappear from view. because the sea can be so calm, the surface appears glassy, making it an efficient mirror of the sky.

the case of the disappearing horizon :)
while island hopping in tawi-tawi
on april 23, 2011

clear seawater, glassy water surface, and the vanishing horizon
just off sangasiapu island
on april 23, 2011

the seawater remains very clear, too, allowing you to see natural underwater gardens even though you're looking at them from a good distance.

view of the coastline, the sea, and underwater wonders
from sanga-sanga bridge
on april 24, 2011

the seawater in tawi-tawi is so clean and clear. there is no need for scuba nor snorkel-and-mask to see healthy corals. believe it or not, the colorful coral colonies are visible from the water surface!

a natural coral garden
just off tawi-tawi's tango island
on april 23, 2011

there are underwater areas that are all-sand, too, and very ideal for swimming.

part of sangasiapu island, tawi-tawi
on april 23, 2011

laa island, tawi-tawi
on april 23, 2011

this is a glimpse of how clean and clear tawi-tawi seawater is
photogenic sangasiapu island
on april 23, 2011

there is no exaggeration at all in saying this: breathtaking tawi-tawi, truly breathtaking tawi-tawi! :)



breathtaking tawi-tawi: our journey to the philippines' southernmost frontier | the series

Thursday, August 15, 2013

destination: balobok rock shelter and thereabouts

"The most rewarding things you do in life 
are often the ones that look like they cannot be done." 
-- Arnold Palmer

once upon a trip to tawi-tawi's balobok rock shelter
this is part 7 of a series entitled breathtaking tawi-tawi: our journey to the philippines' southernmost frontier.


day 3. april 23, 2011. black saturday.
adventure 1: island hopping -- bongao, tango, panglima sugala, sangasiapu, laa, pababag, pasiagan
adventure 2: destination: bud bongao
adventure 3: destination: balobok rock shelter in brgy. lakit-lakit
adventure 4: destination: provincial capitol

although kat and i gave up our quest to reach the summit of bud bongao, our adventures in the philippines' southernmost province were far from over. among other must-do activities in our list, we had to go and see for ourselves the balobok rock shelter, a recognized pre-historic site in lakit-lakit, tawi-tawi.

lakit-lakit is a barangay in nearby sanga-sanga island and is about 9 kms from bongao. for us to get there, we needed some means of land transportation. alvin called ismael, one of his younger relatives, and asked the latter to join our group at the foot of bud bongao in pasiagan. ismael wasted no time and soon arrived with his tricycle. although he was not familiar with balobok, he was as eager as we were to check out the place. kuya jan and alvin, although locals of tawi-tawi, were not familiar with the place either -- they just knew the direction to lakit-lakit but not the exact location of the balobok rock shelter. even so, we knew the place was just somewhere there and the five of us -- kuya jan, alvin, ismael, kat and i -- were all game enough to pursue the adventure together.


destination: balobok rock shelter and thereabouts
our adventure party of five :)

we followed the road from pasiagan until we crossed sanga-sanga bridge and went past the msu-tawi-tawi campus and the airport in sanga-sanga. eventually, we ran out of good road to take and ismael had to skillfully drive his tricycle through rough, uhm, rocky road. from time to time, we had to stop to ask for directions and affirmation from the few locals we encountered in the scarcely inhabited area. for the most part, the rough road was lined with dense vegetation on both sides and we only saw a few houses. truth be told, due to the absence of helpful signages and clear directions, there were moments when i felt that our trip was simply like following a road to nowhere. nevertheless, we pressed on and, finally, arrived. whew!


a not so rough part of the road to balobok in brgy. lakit-lakit, tawi-tawi

looking back, i think it took us about an hour to reach the place and the fruit of our perseverance tasted sweet. however, i also remember the bitter aftertaste of my realization that i savored it too soon. haha. we were at the right stop, yes, but we could not find the balobok rock shelter!

we were expecting to see a boardwalk leading to a natural rock arch. we looked around and did not see any boardwalk. what we did see was this shed and, close to it, a barely defined footpath leading to a beach some challenging steps down the cliff.


our "welcome marker"-- a waiting shed at the cliff

we carefully made our way down expecting to eventually stumble upon a hidden path that would direct us to what we were looking for. errngk. no such luck.

we explored the beach and enjoyed the moment. the feel of the place was very rustic. with driftwood here and there, it seemed to me that nobody ever went there -- nobody except for time and the waves.


the beach at the bottom of the cliff

on the very irregular surface of the cliff wall, there were several natural openings and some make-shift footbridges that gave us hope would lead to a cave or cave-like structure. we followed those and, again, did not find what we went there for. at one point, i thought, "could it be that we are already looking at it but just couldn't recognize it?"


searching in vain for balobok cave and/or rock shelter

after encountering a few dead ends and accepting our lack of reliable knowledge of the place, we gave up exploring and made our way back to where we left ismael's tricycle. up the slope, kuya jan saw another make-shift footbridge. he followed it and the rest of us didn't. we just waited for him to return.


searching for balobok cave and rock shelter
kuya jan's path to his brief solo adventure

we watched kuya jan as he crossed to the other side of the planks. he walked on and we soon lost sight of him due to the vegetation and the highly uneven terrain. a few moments later, he called out to us because he saw a cave-like opening. since he had my point-and-shoot camera with him that time, i asked him to just take pictures of the place for me.

when kuya jan rejoined our group, i checked the photos that he took and, indeed, there were snapshots of a huge limestone chamber which looked connected to somewhere else. no doubt, what he saw during his short solo exploration was, indeed, a cave -- perhaps, one of the many caves (or, maybe, a part of a complex cave system) in the massive karst that makes up part of tawi-tawi's brgy. lakit-lakit and nearby areas.

i took photos of the surrounding areas where ismael parked his tricycle. should some of you want to go to the balobok rock shelter, too, these photos will be of help to you: these landmarks will tell you that you already went past and, therefore, missed the turn for the boardwalk and the balobok arch!!! ^_^


a giant tree and the integrated agricultural research center for marginal areas
brgy. lakit-lakit, bongao, tawi-tawi


yes, we were in the right area but we actually stopped too far and missed the boardwalk and the natural rock arch by several hundred meters! haha. hahaha.

thanks to an act of hospitality, we experienced a great turnaround. a local going about his late afternoon activities took time to exchange pleasantries with us. when he learned that we were looking for the balobok rock shelter, he went out of his way to show us the path. we had to walk many, many, many steps back on the road! no wonder then why we initially did not see what we were looking for.


kat (left) walking with the kind local who showed us the way to the balobok rock shelter


the boardwalk and the balobok natural rock arch

the boardwalk which i got to know through the pictures shared in www.ironwulf.net was barely recognizable. a lot of planks were missing and some sections were in various stages of decay. it was sad to see that wooden walkway leading to the arch and to the rock shelter in such a state.


the boardwalk to the balobok rock shelter

despite the already really run-down appearance of the boardwalk, the balobok natural arch remained a mesmerizing sight to behold. it framed the cove fronting the rock shelter so perfectly. with parts of the boardwalk passing through it, there's a striking contrast that registered well in the several pictures that we took -- the robustness of nature's sculpture and the vulnerability of modern mankind's work.


the balobok natural rock arch

the balobok cove

beyond the massive circular rock arch and at the other end of the damaged wooden walkway, is the balobok rock shelter -- a shallow cave-like opening fronting the sea. it does not look impressive in the picture but it is, in fact, an important archeological site which, according to researchers, was "occupied during the mid-holocene (5000-8800 years before present), a period of neolithic (new stone age) culture expansion in the philippines."


the balobok rock shelter

the cultural and geological layers found at the balobok rock shelter are represented by the balobok column (or "haliging balobok"), which is displayed at the the national museum of the philippines. the column is a layered sculpture and looks like a short totem pole of hardened mushroom heads.


the balobok column 
national museum of the philippines

this is the english version of what is on the tablet:
"This column is a reconstruction of the cultural and geological layers uncovered in the excavations at Balabok Rockshelter in Tawi-tawi which dates to the Neolithic Period. Three cultural layers were identified by researchers, all of them being shell middens -- dumps filled primarily with shells. Each of the layers is slightly different in color. The artifacts and ecofacts found in the various layers were shells broken by human beings to extract the meat; bones of fishes and pig*, some of which indicate charring due to cooking; flaked stone tools; polished stone adzes; a bronze socketed adze; a red opaque glass bead; fragments of polished shell adzes and knives; earthenware pottery, and human teeth.  The shell and animal bone remains indicate the dual source of food available to the inhabitants of Balobok -- brackish water for shells and the forested land for a variety of animals."

*the Filipino version of the tablet states: "mga buto ng maliliit na mga hayop tulad ng ibon, paniki, baboy at usa" which translates to "bones of small animals like birds, bats, pigs, and deer."


there's definitely more to tawi-tawi than just being the philippines' last frontier in the south. tawi-tawi's balobok rock shelter is significant not only for the prehistory of the philippines but also of southeast asia. because of the neolithic period items found at the rock shelter, we know that tawi-tawi cradled the early inhabitants of the region and also preserved in her folds tangible records of their existence and cultural development. as early as thousands of years ago, there were already people who had this place as their vantage to view the rest of the world from.


up next: breathtaking tawi-tawi, truly breathtaking tawi-tawi




breathtaking tawi-tawi: our journey to the philippines' southernmost frontier | the series
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